Wait..what? Everything I know about digital marketing I learned in theatre?

I have been immersing myself in digital marketing lately (mostly content creation for social media, blogs, email newsletters, and web pages). When I get into it, I really get into it. So much so that I have noticed that when I get interrupted writing, my reaction is very much like my son when I tell him to pause his Playstation game to eat his dinner. It is what I call the “Wait..What?” response.  I usually just need to ask a few simple questions, get a few basic answers and then I immerse myself in the new topic, but it did get me thinking about my reaction.

Do Not Interrupt Image Credit - Flickr: SDASM Archives Creative Commons

Do Not Interrupt
Image Credit – Flickr: SDASM Archives
Creative Commons

I used to watch actors work every day in a previous career. They would come into a rehearsal room all self-conscious and awkward, and then proceed to strip away all their assumptions until they could inhabit a character. It usually took them a few weeks to do this but when it was done, once the actor went on stage you could not see where they ended and the new character began.
Digital Marketing is similar. We work with brands, and what are they but the human personification of organisations? We work with characters, or personas. Like actors, we have to figure out what motivates them. What is their purpose in each different situation? When digital works well, it feels natural and authentic. The language is a natural fit. We trust what it shows us, even though deep down we know that it is fleeting and created.

actor on stage

What is his motivation?
Image Credit – Flickr: State Library Queensland
Creative Commons

The Digital World is actually a lot like theatre. They both create virtual spaces where the normal rules do not apply. They are both dependent on technical folk who never see the light of day until the project is done or the coffee runs out. Theatre has sets and lights to create the space. The Digital World has wireframes and pixels. Theatre has that constant tension between art and bums on seats. We are torn between design and traffic. They make connections. We make links.

stage door

Image Credit – Flickr: State Library of New South Wales
Creative Commons

Like all good theatre shows, digital is very rarely the result of just one person. It needs a lot of input and collaboration. How other people see the character is important. Decisions about emphasis are crucial. There is nothing worse than a brand that forgets its passion and just starts selling. It is forced and wooden and amateurish. During the rehearsal process, actors have to put the characters on the floor. They take them off the page and get them moving about, trying different things. There is a culture of trying and experimenting and failing harder that creates the magic in theatre. They use the rehearsal room because they understand that allowing people to show vulnerability creates something stronger.

motion picture scene

Image Credit – Flickr: Florida Memory
Creative Commons

Something similar happens on the digital stage. The best companies break the rules. As a Twitter friend of mine said recently, there is no template for a spark. There might not be, but we can create conditions where the spark has a good chance of catching fire. Apply pressure. Add friction or conflict. Ensure there is plenty of oxygen. Then drag your material across the same surface repeatedly and see what happens. It works for me.

shakespeare - growth hacker
In the meantime, I have a newsletter to write.

Telepathic Technology

When I was growing up I was a big fan of science fiction. A lot of the books that I read had some sort of flying car as standard. By the year 2000, we were supposed to have flying cars everywhere. Instead we got a computer bug which never happened and really small phones.
calvin

The other technology which featured in the books I read was something that nobody expected but which has appeared as a tech trend this year – telepathic technology. We already have technology that can track changes in human physiological systems and respond in ways that change behaviour. Wearable technologies and the monitoring of personal data (transactional, physiological, behavioural or emotional) already allows for that feedback.
Monitoring technologies are not new. Since about 1200AD we have been using crystals that were set in bone or leather frames to enhance what we focus our attention on. We use clockwork and digital mechanisms to measure the passing of time. Today we have Nike sportsbands, Pebble watches, Google Glass and the rumoured Apple smartwatch is supposed to be on the way. All of these technologies are designed to monitor the personal data which arises out of our activities and to use that to feed back into more relevant content.
The big leap has been in feedback technology. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) allows us to see what is going on in our brains by measuring the blood flow. It is now used by courts in America as a way of detecting if someone is telling the truth or not. Electroencelography (EEG) taps into the electrical resistivity of our scalps. Combine the two of these and you have telepathic technology. Last year, two researchers divided by the Atlantic but linked by EEG caps managed to use thought to communicate. There was no external signal that was sent by one and acted upon by the other. This was an internal thought from one brain to another which caused an involuntary physical action to occur. One guy imagined pressing a button while the other guy felt his finger move downward in a button pressing motion.

eeg cap

Anything related to the human mind and psychology will be of interest to those in a number of different fields, most noticeably affective computing (Techtarget, 2013), HCI, medical health and the military. DARPA are currently prototyping an early warning telepathic system to ease the strain on soldiers by using radar and camera technology to detect danger on the horizon. In the past this would often miss possible threats but the combination of an EEG helmet is returning a 100% success rate because it utilises the inbuilt mechanisms of the brain while also ensuring that the soldier remains alert and calm (Darpa, 2012). Stress reduction is an area where telepathic technologies are already being used. New headbands like Muse and Emotiv train the brain and relax the user. By linking to an app, the user is connected to audio content of a storm and by calming the mind, the wind will die down in their ears (The Spec, 2014).
MIT have developed telepathic technology for addicts and sufferers of PSTD which incorporates wearable technology that recognises crisis moments and intervenes with appropriate digital content and social networking messages designed to calm the patient (MIT, 2013). Autism researchers are also utilising it to help children make connections and communicate in different ways.
While telepathic technologies are expensive at present, they are starting to come down in price. Toy manufacturers were quick to use them for gaming. MIT have developed a gesture guitar which allows musicians to manipulate sounds. There are also audio headsets that plays music that mirrors the mood it is reading from your brain. Game manufacturers are creating brain wave games. Mattel have a mind powered ball game called Mindflex which moves a foam ball along a path by concentrating. There is also a “Force” trainer which used the mind the turn a fan which floats another foam ball in the air.
Retail were quick to see the benefits of monitoring emotional reactions to products and layout. They can see what users like, how they react to choice, when they get overwhelmed and when they respond with wonder. This helps create more engaging experiences for the customer.
keannu

The combination of personal data from the user combined with targeted products has already allowed designers to create highly personalised experiences such as mind controlled cars or the ability to change digital objects which reflect the user. Perhaps the biggest impact will be on people rather than products. Our ideas of access, privacy and surveillance are changing as it is. What happens when communication is done through thought? What will we do with all this hardware we carry around in our pockets? Will it become obsolete? Will our children look back and laugh at the thought of when we used to stop what we were doing, pull out a cumbersome old fashioned smart phone and start to tap and swipe at it like a woodpecker. With this sort of technology they should be able to bypass all that hardware. Will telepathic technology turn us all into our own computers? Why bother with pesky design software? Why not just imagine what you want and then print it through your 3D printer? The potential future uses of telepathic technology are limitless.

More reading

JWT Intelligence accessed http://www.jwtintelligence.com/2014/03/10-overriding-themes-sxswi-2014/#axzz2wvQ62ehm March 25 2014
The Spec accessed http://www.thespec.com/living-story/4422069-muse-headband-may-help-you-relax/ March 25 2014
Techtarget accessed http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/affective-computing March 25 2014
MIT accessed http://affect.media.mit.edu/projects.php March 25 2014
Darpa accessed http://www.darpa.mil/NewsEvents/Releases/2012/09/18.aspx March 25 2014

Editing Wikipedia

I grew up with Encyclopedias. It was my job to look after them in our house. We had a black Collins 1973 set with gold lettering which moved around the house as my father constantly redecorated. The L- M had a piece of its binding torn, but I loved it for the way it broke the set in two on the shelf. One of them had its flyleaf desecrated with red crayon circles from my little sister. There was a complete cross section of the human body on layered glossy see-through pages. Each page had a seperate part of the human system, the circulation, reproductive, endocrine, digestive and so on, all in high gloss colour and it was like peeling a body away like an onion. It was enough to turn me into some psychopath but my heart was taken by the myths and legends collection which came with it. Stories, tales, fairy dreams and folk oddities from all over the world captured my imagination and would not release it.
I remember the Yearbook had a lot about Richard Nixon in it and it was strange to grow up reading about this guy and then hearing adults talk about Eamonn De Valera so much. That confused me, but it was nothing that rearranging the encyclopedias could not solve. They were authoritative, organised and linked but I wasn’t one of those kids that bowed at the altar of the encyclopedia. Subject headings, indexes and alphabetical arrangements became my manual of style but I would just as easily turn the books on their side and build walls of a fort with them. Of course, all that is gone now, but I am still an encyclopedia kid.

Codex Seraphinius Luigi Serafini

Codex Seraphinius
Luigi Serafini

So I jumped at the chance to become a Wikipedian recently. I attended an editathon in the Science Lab recently about the Battle of Clontarf organised by 1014 Retold. I like Wikipedia. It became a part of my second age of information when I returned to study even if I always got it mixed up with wikileaks at the start. I think that was from too many lecturers starting off by saying that wikipedia was going to be the death of democracy or giving out about it somehow. I remember finally discovering that wikipedia was run by Jimmy Wales and I got him confused with Jimmy Cauty from The KLF and I remember thinking that fella, there is nothing he won’t do.

Rock n Roll Encyclopedias will never die

Jimmy Wales
Wikipedia Founder and Rock n Roll crazy man

I like that wikipedia is not perfect. I like that anyone can edit it. I realise that it has a male bias and that the editors have gotten into trouble in the past with not being objective and acting as PR consultants for small countries, but nothing is perfect. Yes, people have engaged in revenge edits and edit wars but its accessiblity makes up for it. It is so easy to get information. The page design combines the layout of traditional encyclopedias with the simplicity of the google home page and everything of relevance is hyperlinked in the web structure that we know and love.

Image Credit - Creative Commons U.S. National Archives

Image Credit – Creative Commons
U.S. National Archives


I knew that you could edit a wikipedia page already, but an editathon is the ideal way to start. We had a real life wikipedian-in-residence from the Natural History & Science Museum in London, John Cummings, who walked us through the ins and outs of making edits to the Battle of Clontarf page. John has also created the Monmouthpedia which is an amazing idea to curate a whole town with QR codes and translate them into different languages for visitors to access. There were historians there aswell as people who were into the idea of information sharing (Open Knowledge Foundation). There was even a phd student who was studying why people edit wikipedia. Most of us were beginners but it did not take us long to get the hang of it. We learned how to use wikimarkup to format a page and we set about updating the history of the Battle of Clontarf for the 21st century. I found it to be an enjoyable way of practising information skills without any sort of real pressure.

Image Credit - Banksy

Image Credit – Banksy

SEO and Irish Pubs

I recently attended a talk given by David McWilliams where he explained his economic theory based on Irish pubs and I was reading about the Irish connection to the birth of the internet and this naturally got me thinking about Irish pubs and SEO. Websites and Irish pubs are recognisable formats for information transfer. Both attempt to make you feel like you are in the right place at the right time. Both are trusted as authoritive(-ish) sources that generate repeat visits. Both create additional hard-to-pin-down qualities (the aboutness of a website and the “craic” in a pub). Both use complicated algorithms to satisfy information queries (pagerank and the process where the most trusted result to my question about who will win the 3:45 at Cheltenham will probably come from the person that shares the most amount of drinks with me). So, as St Patrick said to the pagan while explaining the holy trinity – Let’s break this shit down.

Internal Factors
Irish pubs have a recognisable design known the world over. It will have a name over the door, a drinks counter, local characters, and places where you can rest (anything from polished wooden stools to planks on beerkegs). Likewise, websites use HTML to create pleasing visual resting places. They usually have head tags, title tags, body tags and header tags to help the visitor feel like they are at a trustworthy establishment. Layout and architecture are also important in both, as they need to be easily navigable and I know from personal experience that people move differently when in pubs and on websites. Irish pubs have niche areas where visitors get a more specific experience (the snug, the counter, the music corner, the hallway out to the toilets, old Jimmy’s chair) and it is a good idea to inform new visitors about them to help them find their way around. Site speed is also a factor. When there are large amounts of visitors in a pub, load-time can send people out the door.

Irish Pub of the Week #7

<title>O’ DONOHUE’S</title>
Image Credit – National Library of Ireland


Irish pubs are known for being full of conversation, or content. That content is best served in a natural way, using the language that a visitor is familiar with. Similarly, the content of a website needs to be relevant to a visitors needs. There is no point having content based on sport if your visitors are looking for music. That will lead to a high bounce rate (someone sticking their head in the door, having a quick scan, and moving on down the road to the next pub) and will reduce the time spent on site. If you see this happening, have a look at why it is happening.

External Factors
Although Irish pubs appear to be self contained locations, in reality they are more like hubs or crossroads in a community. Connections run into them at the speed of a rumour. Irish pubs are defined by their links, and because of the diaspora they usually have backlinks coming from all over the world to them. Some of them can be high quality links like Barack Obama, but equally important are the number of neighbourhood links. These measure the popularity of the pub to the local community. So, if the local butcher or the GAA hero frequents the pub, you can be sure that it is a relevant place. This endorsement is vital for Irish pubs. Unlike British pubs, which are owned by corporate conglomerates, Irish pubs have owners. This brings with it an element of trust that the visitor can count on. The same logic applies to a website.
Of course, Irish pubs are famous for being social communities. They are frequented by social referrers whose primary behaviour is interaction, engagement and sharing. Like a website, time spent on site is usually a good indicator of a satisfying experience. However it could also flag that there is a problem with visitors getting stuck or lost there. Unfortunately, this can often happen. When the social referrers are in tune with relevant content we get that unique irish phenomenon called “the craic”. This is the holy grail of most websites – user generated content, or as it is known in marketingland, earned media. Irish pubs have different types of social referrers. You get the local businessman who just wants to relax after a hard weeks work (Facebook), the gossiper who flits from conversation to conversation picking up and dropping titbits (Twitter), the outspoken argumentative one who has seen it all (YouTube), the one who looks at the past through rosy coloured glasses (Instagram), the son of the owner who tries to be part of every group (Google Plus), the nerdy one in the corner reading a book (Tumblr) and the one who falls asleep and get his face drawn on by his friends (Snapchat). The combination of all these factors creates what is known to web developers as personalisation, and what is known to Irish pub-goers as “the local”.

Patrick Sullivan's Bar

Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Google Plus, Tumblr and Snapchat..
and a dog pretending to be someone
Image Credit – National Library of Ireland


So, for the day that is in it, Lá Fhéile Pádraig Sona Duit!

Digital Romance

Image taken from page 605 of '[Love Lyrics and Valentine Verses, for young and old. [E. M. Davies. With illustrations.]]'

This morning my feed was full of Valentines. Everything from cupcakes to a couple buried together in ancient Italy for romantic archaeologists. It got me thinking about romance on the internet. Specifically, the history of it, how it works and how it affects us. Of necessity, this will dip into sex but I am deliberately avoiding that as it would need a seperate blogpost.

Heart-shaped box
Technology promises freedom. Communication technology promises access. It connects people with information and people with people. In the old days you had to go to a brothel to look at erotica or to a temple to look at carvings. Now it can come to you. After the bible, romantic “fiction” was the next genre that drove the adoption of the printing press. In the 1800s, the telegraph was used for long-distance romance. In 1848, the first “online” wedding too place between a bride in Boston and a groom in New York. In the 20th century the car was the biggest technological advance which brought people together unsupervised. Those of us who still carry the light of the pre digital world will remember when contacting your loved one meant using a phone to ring the actual building where they lived and being put through to an adult guardian first. Amazingly, this worked surprisingly well.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/statelibraryofnsw/3210637493/

Information Behaviour
I come from generations of people that lived and died within the same geographical sod of land in a valley. People accessed information about other people through traditional gate-keepers. In some cases, this was a formal matchmaker. In other cases, the social system acted as a limit to how people met. Usually people found partners through school or work or friends of friends, like Google Plus on a local level. That would have been fine if those pesky kids just stopped progressing. We are now living in a world where geography does not have the same limit and where online social interaction is the norm. In our constantly-on world of status updates it is like we are communicating in the same place at the same time.

Information Retrieval
Online dating has exploded as a result of this. I have friends of a certain age who would have viewed online dating as a sad fad for the socially inept, but they now use online dating as easily as they used to pop into the pub to see who was out on a friday night. The stigma is gone. While the media like to focus on scare stories of stalkers and people who assume false identities (this happens offline too!), I know more and more people who met online and are happy. Like Google, you now have the ability to retrieve more relevant matches based on your search parameters and the playing field is wide open. Most dating sites use data to see who we are compatible with. Very efficient and scientific, if that is what you are looking for.

Unlimited Access
Not only can we find people that we were never able to before, we can also find more information about people. The problem with access to all this information is that we now have too much choice. Privacy is also another concern. While you can be more open and visible now (which is an essential part of relationships), there is more of a danger of your information being used against you. Sexting is an example of this as it gives rise to cyberbullying, blackmail and public shame. If this were purely a problem for unthinking young people it would be just a case of teaching them online etiquette. Unfortunately, according to a recent report by McAfee, 49% of adults have sent naked images of themselves to others.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/powerhouse_museum/3129861172/

Death of Distance
While online dating is an obvious example of how the internet has impacted on romantic, there are numerous platforms that allow people to explore relationships. Since the internet started, forums have been one of the main ways for people to connect and form communities of interest. They offer opportunities for people with niche interests to meet. They allow people to share about relationships issues in a very positive and educational way while also guarding anonymity. Snapchat was set up to counter the idealised online identity that many of us have on the internet. Posting nude pictures of yourself that self-destruct would probably achieve this. Chatroulette is something similar, an online chatroom that pairs strangers with random partners for web based conversations. It used to be was the hunting ground of young males until they introduced skin based filters and moderators which could block some of the more less salubrious material. Twitter has long ago had its first tweeted proposal and I remember one year sending my other half a facebook ad targetted specifically at her for Valentines Day (It didn’t work because she installed an ad-blocker!). Blogs are no stranger to being used for love. Research has shown that they are often used to allow people to create elaborate online fantasies. As the internet went mobile, so did romance with the use of location based apps such as Grindr and Blendr taking dating to the hyperlocal level.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/lselibrary/4416711433/

While I have only touched on a few aspects of online romance, we can see that it is alive and well in the internet age, driven by algorithms and desire. The question is will it add to our relationships or will it turn us into more isolated individuals.

Image taken from page 48 of 'Loving and Loth: a novel. By the author of “Rosa Noel,” etc. [Bertha De Jongh.]'

Online Travel

It is January. You are online checking to see where you will go during the Summer and you are reading the live tweets of a honey badger. Welcome to the 21st century. This is how the internet has changed travel and tourism.

Live Tweeting in the Zoo

Everyday I’m badgering

The impact of technology on society
Like the internet, tourism is a particularly 20th century phenomenon. Until the 1950s, jetting about was the perogative of the wealthy. As airplane technology changed, travel became more accessible. Airline Reservation Systems were created to manage information that was previously processed by humans. Like the defense industry, the use of computers allowed a network system to develop into what were known as Computer Reservation Systems. These developed into Global Distribution Systems such as Amadeus and Galileo in the 80s, allowing local travel agents to check real-time flight schedules, availability and prices. They could make bookings and issue tickets. I remember making the journey from North London to Ilford to a particular travel agent who could guarantee me a flight home at Christmas. It was a time consuming and complicated process but it was the only way of getting a flight without going directly to the airport.

Remington Rand Computer  : Consolidated/Convair Aircraft Factory San Diego Equipment

Image Credit – SDASM Archives
Creative Commons
Early Travel Agent

The travel industry was perfectly placed to take advantage of the internet in the 90s. It was already set up to solve logistical problems and it involved information management, PR, customer service and sales. Airlines began to reduce the need for travel agents, although there will always be a need for gatekeepers. Online Travel Agents took advantage of better information flows to present different travel options. Websites provided 24/7 access, multichannel contact, online support and a constantly improving user experience. In return they got consumer information. Online Tourism was central to this change through the use of professional reviews and User Generated Content.

The impact of society on technology
Like other areas effected by the internet, it was online behaviour that changed things. Tourists search for information for different reasons and at different times. Most of us use the internet to research an upcoming trip. We look for inspiration. We read reviews and blogs or read the tweets of honey badgers to get a feel for a place. We check the weather channel for real time reviews of our destinations. Geomapping services like Google Maps and Google Street View allow us to get more enhanced information and actually view places before visiting. Moving from research to purchase involves the building of trust. No-one likes to hand over credit card details for that hotel which looks beautiful in the brochure but which could be next to a building site. This is where clever companies set themselves apart from others by creating content that is authoritative, useful and engaging.

Once we get there, we check in on location based services such as Yelp and Foursquare to find where to eat. We use specific apps such as Tripit Travel Organiser to make travelling easier. We have cabs pick us up using Hailo. Pinpin ATM Finder directs us to the nearest cashpoint. Tube Exits tell us which carriage to get on so we can off as close to our exit as possible. Cultural tourism providers are aware of the power of sharing and places like the Rijkse Museum attract travellers by sharing their content online. Even in Ireland, we have our own live tweeting giraffe called Spotticus in the Natural History Museum. What do we do when we return home? We upload our pics to Facebook. We become broadcasters ourselves. While there are many reasons why people choose to communicate the benefits of locations to other travellers, the result is more information which feeds back into someone elses holiday research.

Herbert George Ponting and telephoto apparatus, Antarctica, January 1912

Image Credit – NZ National Library
Creative Commons
Early instagram

Where to next?
So where do you see the travel industry changing as a result of technology in the future? Do you go offline on holidays or do you use location based technology to discover more relevant experiences? My feeling is that there will be an increase in holidays finding me rather than the other way around. Social and User Generated Content is definitely here to stay, but the big growth right now is in M-Commerce. This is not surprising. Travel is all about mobility. The ease of paying online through smart phones is what consumers are looking for. As internet penetration grows and demographics change, mobile usage will follow. Trust in M-commerce will develop just as it did in early online travel.

Digital Recipe

In this post I am going to share with you my tried and trusted recipe for creating a blogging editorial calendar for the year ahead. Whether you are a multinational giant or a multitasking mommy blogger, this involves a creative process. You will be creating content out of thin air, mixing mediums and producing digital sizzle. It will not take long. Any longer than two hours and it will be overcooked.
Let’s go!

Church & Co.

Image Credit – Miami Digital Collections
Creative Commons

1. Who are you cooking for?
This is the hardest part of the process and the one that most people want to skip because they think that their content will suit anyone who arrives at the table. Even if you blog for yourself (which a lot of people do), creating the same content over and over usually gets bland. If you have a blog already, you know who usually turns up. I suggest you create personas for them. Give them names. Research them as much as you can. Stick pictures of them on the wall, with quotes. Be a regular stalker host.

Verklede gasten aan de feestdis in een van de Parijse ateliers / Costumed guests at the banquet in one of the Parisian studios

Image Credit – Nationaal Archief
Creative Commons

2. Gather your main ingredients
Create a list of at least 5 topics that your readers are interested in. For example, for a tourism blog, they might be landscape, activities, off the beaten track, culture, food, etc. Throw them all into the pot. These are the basic flavours that you will be working with.

Fruit Venders, Indianapolis Market, aug., 1908. Wit., E. N. Clopper.  Location: Indianapolis, Indiana. (LOC)

Image Credit – Library of Congress
Creative Commons

3. Apply heat or pressure
Use questions to stir the topics. Each topic should be broken down into at least 5 smaller pieces. For example, what is it about each topic that your readers are interested in? What problems or concerns do they have about them? What are the trends relating to these topics. Why do some people like these topics and others make that face like they just bit a lemon?

4. Add your sizzle
Now put your own ideas in. What is coming up in the next year that you are interested in? Any conferences, any marketing pushes, new products coming out? What do you want to blog about? This part is about your interests. Yes, we want to hear about you. Not on and on, but if you have something of value to bring to the table, now is the time to add it. This will keep your marketing team/accountant/ego happy and create a few more posts.

5. Think about service
You added the sizzle so do not forget about the style. Or the sizzle will sozzle. This is what separates the cooks from the chefs. Would you serve a soup with chopsticks? Would you put the heirloom cutlery out for burgers? In the heat of the creative moment we can rush to get the food on the table.
A blogpost can be served in a particular way. They can be textual, audio-visual, mixes, lists, guest posts, recaps, reviews, how-tos, best ofs and opinions. There are probably more ways too. What is the best way to frame your content? Thinking about this often creates fantastic new content. It can transform a dry bloated information piece into something that jumps off the screen and flies.

Met de slee van de springschans / Sleigh leaving ski-jump

Image Credit – Nationaal Archief
Creative Commons

6. Timing
Just like any kitchen exercise, timing is everything. So too with blogging. Get your calendar out and assign each post to where it will be most effective.

Voila, you have an annual blogging calendar that is tied into your marketing objectives/personal creative desires. You have just gone from the dread of creating content to having the bones of at least 25 crafted specialities for the year ahead. You have a work schedule. You have ideas. You have sizzle, and you still have time to add in your on-the-fly pieces.

All that is left is the writing, and that is the fun part.

"USE LEFTOVERS... "

Image Credit – US National Archives
Creative Commons